Materia Medica by Body System

Materia Medica for the Cardio-Vascular System

Diffuse circulatory stimulants:

  • Zanthoxylum americanum (Prickly Ash)
  • Zingiber officinale (Ginger)
  • Myrica cerifera (Bayberry)
  • Achillea millefolium (Yarrow)
  • Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary)
  • Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo)

Central circulatory stimulants:

  • Capsicum minimum (Cayenne)
  • Armoracea rusticana (Horseradish)
  • Arnica montana (Arnica)
  • Panax ginseng/quinquefolium (Ginseng)
  • Cerebral circulatory stimulants:

Cerebral Circulatory Stimulants

  • Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo)
  • Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary)
  • Vinca minor (Lesser Periwinkle)
  • Centella/Hydrocotyl asiatica (Gotu kola)

Hypotensives:

  • Convalleria majalis (Lily of the Valley)
  • Rauwolfia serpentina (Snake Root)
  • Veratrum album (White or European Hellebore)
  • Veratrum viride (Green or American Hellebore)
  • Crataegus oxycanthoides (Hawthorn)
  • Allium sativum (Garlic)
  • Viscum album (Mistletoe)
  • Olea europea (Olive leaves)
  • Viburnum opulus (Cramp bark)

Hypertensives:

  • Ephedra sinica (Ma Huang)
  • Cytisus/Sarothamnus scoparius (Scotch Broom)
  • Glycyrrhiza glabra (Licorice)
  • Panax ginseng/quinquefolium
  • Hydrastis canadensis (Golden Seal)
  • Claviceps purpurea (Ergot fungus)
  • Taxus baccata (Yew)
  • Chelidonium majus (Greater Celandine)
  • Nicotine
  • Caffeine
  • Theophylline
  • Theobromine

Rubefacients:

  • Armoracea rusticana (Horseradish)
  • Capsicum minimum (Cayenne)
  • Brassica alba/nigra (White/Black Mustard)
  • Juniperus communis (Juniper)

Cardiac tonics:

  • Crataegus oxycanthoides (Hawthorn)
  • Urginea maritima (Squill)
  • Asclepias spp. (Milkweeds)
  • Nerium oleander (Oleander)
  • Apocynum cannabinum (Dogbane)
  • Cereus grandiflorus (Night Blooming Cactus)
  • Leonurus cardiaca (Motherwort)
  • Convalleria majalis (Motherwort)
  • Cytisus scoparius (Scotch broom)

Diuretics:

  • Cytisus scoparius (Scotch broom)
  • Juniperus communis (Juniper)
  • Armoracea rusticana (Horseradish)
  • Achillea millefolium (Yarrow)
  • Nerium oleander (Oleander)

Anticoagulants:

  • Allium sativum (Garlic)
  • Melilotus officinalis (Melilot)
  • Coumarouna odorata (Tonka beans)
  • Rubiaceae family eg. Galium aparine, Asperula odorata (Sweet Woodruff) and Galium triflorum (Sweet-scented Bedstraw)

Coagulants:

  • Medicago sativa (Alfalfa)
  • Urtica dioica (Nettle)
  • Capsicum minimum (Cayenne)
  • Cinnamonum zeylanicum (cinnamon)

Anti – atheroma agents:

  • Allium sativum (Garlic)
  • Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo)
  • Tilia europea (Linden)
  • Arnica montana (Arnica)

Circulatory relaxants:

  • Viburnum opulus (Cramp bark)
  • Lobelia inflata (Lobelia)
  • Achillea millefolium (Yarrow)
  • Diaphoretics

Blood vessel tonics:

  • Tilia europea (Linden)
  • Aesculus hippocastanum (Horse Chestnut)
  • Calendula officinalis (Marigold)
  • Bellis perennis (Daisy)
  • Fagopyrum esculentum (Buckwheat)
  • Hydrastis canadensis (Goldenseal)
  • Crataegus oxycanthoides (Hawthorn)

Materia Medica for the Digestive System

Anthelmintics

  • Artemisia absinthium (Wormwood)
  • Tanacetum vulgare (Tansy)
  • Allium sativum (Garlic)
  • Ruta graveolens (Rue)
  • Thuja occidentalis (Arbor-vitae)
  • Dryopteris filix-mas (Male Fern)
  • Juglans nigra (Black Walnut)
  • Pumpkin seeds

Alteratives

  • Arctium lappa (Burdock)
  • Rumex crispus (Yellow Dock)
  • Iris versicolor (Blue Flag)
  • Chionanthus virginicus (Fringe Tree)
  • Taraxacum off. radix (Dandelion)
  • Berberis vulgaris (Barberry)
  • Trifolium pratense (Red clover)
  • Fumaria officinalis (Fumitory)
  • Larrea divaricata (Chaparrel)

Antiemetics

  • Melissa off. (Lemon Balm)
  • Chamomilla recutita (Chamomile)
  • Ballota nigra (Black Horehound)
  • Mentha piperita (Peppermint)
  • Zingiber off. (Ginger)

Anti-inflammatories

  • Chamomilla recutita (German Chamomile)
  • Calendula off. (Marigold)
  • Salix alba/nigra (Black/White Willow)
  • Filipendula ulmaris (Meadowsweet)
  • Dioscorea villosa (Wild Yam)
  • Glycyrrhiza glabra (Licorice)
  • Hydrastis canadensis (Golden Seal)
  • Harpagophytum procumbens (Devil’s Claw)

Antacids

  • Acorus calamus (Sweet Flag
  • Chamomilla recutita (Chamomile)
  • Filipendula ulmaris (Meadowsweet)
  • Erythrea centaurea (Centaury)

Anti-spasmodic

  • Viburnum opulus (Cramp bark)
  • Chamomilla recutita (German chamomile)
  • Zingiber off. (Ginger)
  • Valeriana off. (Valerian)
  • Mentha piperita (Peppermint)
  • Humulus lupulus (Hops)
  • Lobelia inflata (Lobelia)

Carminative

  • Pimpinella anisum (Anise)
  • Foeniculum off. (Fennel)
  • Mentha piperita (Peppermint)
  • Melissa off. (Lemon balm)
  • Chamomilla recutita (German chamomile)
  • Carum carvi (Caraway)
  • Rosmarinus off. (Rosemary)
  • Zingiber off. (Ginger)
  • Cinnamonum spp. (Cinnamon)
  • Astringents
  • Agrimonia eupatoria (Agrimony)
  • Quercus robur (White/Red Oak)
  • Geranium maculatum (Cranesbill)
  • Potentilla spp. (Tormentil)
  • Capsella bursa-pastoris (Shepherd’s Purse)

Bitters

  • Artemisia absinthium (Wormwood)
  • Gentiana lutea (Yellow Gentian)
  • Berberis vulgaris (Barberry)
  • Centaurea erythrea (Centaury)
  • Juniperus communis (Juniper)
  • Most alterative herbs

Demulcents

  • Symphytum off. (Comfrey)
  • Althea off. (Marshmallow)
  • Ulmus fulvus (Slippery Elm)
  • Glycyrrhiza glabra (Licorice)

Cholagogues & Choleretics

  • Chelone glabra (Balmony)
  • Curcuma longa (Turmeric)
  • Fumaria officinalis (Fumitory)
  • All bitters and alteratives

Emetics

  • Lobelia inflata (Lobelia)
  • Ipecachuana cephaelis (Ipecac)
  • Urginea maritima (Squills)

Liver tonics

  • All bitters, alteratives and cholagogues.
  • Carduus marianus (Milk thistle)
  • Cynara scolymus (Artichoke)
  • Glycyrrhiza glabra (Licorice)
  • Curcuma longa (Turmeric)

Laxatives

  • Taraxacum off. radix (Dandelion root)
  • Linum usitatissimum (Flax)
  • Rhamnus purshiana (Cascara)
  • Plantago psyllium (Psyllium/Ispaghula)
  • Arctium lappa (Burdock)
  • Rumex crispus (Yellow dock)
  • Rheum spp. (Rhubarb)

Sialagogues

  • All bitters
  • Echinacea spp.
  • Zanthoxylum americanum (Prickly Ash)
  • Zingiber off. (Ginger)
  • Stomach tonics
  • Erythrea centaurea (Centaury)
  • Acorus calamus (Sweet flag)
  • Filipendula ulmaris (Meadowsweet)

Materia Medica for the Endocrine System

The Adrenal Glands: (Tonics & Rebalancers)

  • Glycyrrhiza glabra (Licorice)
  • Borago officinalis (Borage)
  • Panax ginseng (Korean ginseng)
  • Eleutherococcus sentocosis (Siberian ginseng)
  • Panax quinquefolium (American ginseng)
  • Withania somnifera (Ashwaganda)

The Thyroid Gland:

  • Fucus vesiculosis (Kelp)
  • Lycopus europeus/virginicus (Bugleweed)
  • Stachys sylvatica (Hedge woundwort)
  • Cereus grandiflorus (Nightblooming cactus)
  • Hydrastis canadensis (Goldenseal)
  • Phytolacca spp. (Pokeroot)
  • Iris versicolor (Blue flag)
  • Leonurus cardiaca (Motherwort)
  • Verbana officinalis (Blue vervain)

The Pituitary Gland:

  • Vitex agnus-castus (Chaste berry)
  • Stachys betonica (Wood betony)

The Pancreas:

  • Galega officinalis (Goats rue)
  • Allium cepa (Onion)
  • Syzygium cumini/Eugenia jambolana (Jambul)
  • Glycyrrhiza glabra (Licorice)

General stimulants of glandular activity:

  • Verbena off./hastata (Blue vervain)
  • Foeniculum vulgaris (Fennel)
  • Phytolacca spp. (Pokeroot)
  • Borago off. (Borage)

Materia Medica of the Immune System

Diaphoretics and sudorifics

  • Eupatorium perfoliatum (Boneset)
  • Capsicum minimum (Cayenne)
  • Sambucus niger (Elder)
  • Zingiber officinalis (Ginger)
  • Achillea millefolium (Yarrow)
  • Nepeta cataria (Catnip)

Anti-inflammatories

  • Myrica cerifera (Bayberry)
  • Chamomilla recutita (Chamomile)
  • Harpagophytum procumbens (Devils Claw)
  • Calendula officinalis (Marigold)
  • Bupleurum falcatum (Chinese Thoroughwax)
  • Glycyrrhiza glabra (Licorice)
  • Dioscorea villosa (Wild Yam)

Immuno-modulators

  • Echinacea angustifolia/purpureum (Echinacea)
  • Galium aparine (Cleavers)
  • Phytolacca decandra (Pokeroot)
  • Ligusticum porteri (Osha)
  • Viscum album (Mistletoe)
  • Usnea spp. (Usnea)
  • Astragalus membranceous (Milk vetch)
  • Grifolia frondosas (Chicken of the woods)
  • Auricularia auricula (Wood ear)
  • Cordyceps sinensis/ophioglossides (Deer fungus parasite)
  • Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi)
  • Lentinus edodes (Shiitake)
  • Tremella mesenterica (Witch’s butter)
  • Trametes versicolor (Turkey tails)

Antimicrobials

  • Allium sativum (Garlic)
  • Baptisia tinctoria (Wild Indigo)
  • Commiphora mol (Myrrh)
  • Thymus vulgaris (Thyme)
  • Origanum vulgare (Marjoram)
  • Berberis vulgaris (Barberry)
  • Berberis aquifolium (Oregon Grape)
  • Hydrastis canadensis (Goldenseal)
  • Mentha piperita (Peppermint)
  • Armillaria mellea (Honey mushroom)
  • Lomatium dissectum (Lomatium)
  • Lavandula
  • Rosmarinus essential oils + many more
  • Thymus
  • Malaelucca
  • Grapefruit seed extract

Anti-catarrhals

  • Euphrasia nemorosa or spp. (Eyebright).
  • Salvia officinalis (Sage)
  • Hydrastis canadensis (Golden seal)
  • Solidago virgaurea (Golden rod)
  • Plantago major/lanceolata (Plantain)
  • Glechoma hederacea (Ground ivy)
  • Baptisia tinctoria (Wild Indigo)
  • Ephedra sinesis (Ma Huang)

Anti-allergenics

  • Chamomilla recutita (German chamomile)
  • Ephedra sinica (Ma Huang)
  • Astragalus membranaceous (Milk vetch)
  • Urtica dioica (Nettle)

Materia Medica for the Urinary System

Anti-microbial herbs:

  • Allium sativum (Garlic)
  • Agathosma/Barosma betulina (Buchu)
  • Thymus vulgaris (Thyme)
  • Juniperus communis (Juniper)
  • Arctostaphyllos uva-ursi (Bearberry)
  • Chimaphilla umbellata & spp. (Pipsissewa)
  • All phenolic volatile oil constituents

Tonic herbs:

  • Achillea millefolium (Yarrow)
  • Equisetum arvense (Horsetail)
  • Hydrastis canadensis (Goldenseal)
  • Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s wort)
  • Alchemilla/Aphanes arvensis (Parsley piert)
  • Parietaria diffusa (Pellitory of the wall)
  • Glechoma hederacea (Ground Ivy)
  • Plantago major/lanceolata (Plantain)

Anticatarrhal herbs:

  • Solidago virgaurea (Golden Rod)
  • Galium aparine (Cleavers)
  • Plantago major/lanceolata (Plantain)
  • Glechoma hederacea (Ground Ivy)
  • Hydrastis canadensis (Goldenseal)
  • Lithotropic herbs:
  • Eupatorium purpureum (Gravel root)
  • Rubia tinctoria (Madder)
  • Betula alba (Silver birch)
  • Apium graveolens (Celery)

Demulcent herbs:

  • Agropyron repens (Couch grass)
  • Althea off. (Marshmallow leaf or root)
  • Zea mays (Corn silk)

Anti-spasmodic herbs:

  • Viburnum opulus (Cramp bark)
  • Hyoscyamus niger (Henbane)
  • Valeriana officinalis (Valerian)
  • Lobelia inflata (Lobelia)

Diuretics

A diuretic is a substance that will increase the volume of urine produced, in healthy or unhealthy kidneys, by promoting the excretion of salts and water.

Common allopathic diuretics include the Thiazide group, frusemide, and spironolactone.

They are used to reduce oedema especially in heart, liver or kidney disorders, to treat high blood pressure, and occasionally to treat glaucoma.

In the folkloric tradition of healing with herbs practically all herbs are classed as diuretics. This erroneous opinion probably arose from the fact that any fluid taken in volume will increase fluid output – in this sense even water can be regarded as a diuretic. In fact, true herbal diuretics are considerably more limited in number than this.

Herbal diuretics may work in 3 ways:

  1. By irritating the kidneys so that they try to flush away the offending substance. Armoracea rusticana and Juniperus communis act in this way.
  2. By osmotic pressure of unmetabolized sugars being excreted in the urine. Agropyron repens & Zea Mays act in this way.
  3. By increasing the renal blood flow and hence the glomerular filtration rate. Up to a certain point any excess glomerular filtrate can be reabsorbed from the kidney tubules, but if it is too high then the urine volume will increase. Herbs that increase the cardiac output (eg. Convalleria majalis) and herbs that stimulate peripheral circulation (eg. Zingiber officinalis, Achillea millefolium, Crataegus oxycanthoides) act in this way.

Having said that, it is interesting to note that the phytotherapist’s most powerful diuretic does not act in any of the above 3 ways. Taraxacum officinalis (leaves) appear to contain an enzyme – like substance that acts on the kidneys to stimulate overall functioning. Taraxacum has the added benefit of being very high in potassium so, when using this herb as a diuretic, we never encounter the problem of potassium deficiency that can occur with allopathic diuretics.

Materia Medica for the Respiratory System

Expectorants

These are herbs which help the body to remove excess mucous from the lungs. Mucous and any inhaled particles are normally voided from the lungs via the mucociliary escalator but this self-cleansing mechanism can become impeded or overloaded if there is an excessive amount of mucus or if the mucus is very thick and sticky.

Excessive mucous production leading to overloading of the removal mechanism and congestion in the lungs (eg. bronchitis, bronchiectasis, pneumonia.) calls for stimulating expectorants to increase the activity of the mucociliary escalator.

Most of this type of expectorant contain saponins. These stimulate the digestive system, and initiate a reflex action to stimulate the bronchial apparatus.

  • Inula helenium (Elecampane)
  • Glycyrrhiza glabra (Licorice)
  • Viola odorata (Sweet Violet)
  • Marrubium Vulgare (White Horehound)
  • Cephaelis ipecacuanha (Ipecac)
  • Populus balsamifera (Balsam Poplar)
  • Sanguinaria canadensis (Bloodroot)
  • Polygala senega (Snake Root)
  • Urginea maritima (Squill)

Production of a thick or sticky mucous which is hard to remove (eg. in inflammation or hypersensitivity), leads to an unproductive irritable cough and requires soothing or relaxing expectorants. These generally derive their action from the presence of mucilage. This relaxes the gut wall and causes a spinal reflex to embryologically related areas (eg. lungs and urinary system ) to both relax them and to encourage the production of a thin loose mucous which is more easily voided.

  • Tussilago farfara (Coltsfoot)
  • Althea officinalis (Marsh Mallow)
  • Plantago lanceolata (Plantain)
  • Symphytum officinalis (Comfrey)
  • Verbascum thapsus (Mullein)
  • Pulmonaria off. (Lungwort)
  • Angelica archangelica (Angelica)
  • Cetraria islandica (iceland Moss)
  • Chondrus crispus (Irish Moss)
  • Grindelia camporum (Gumweed)
  • Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek)
  • Hyssopus officinalis (Hyssop)

Anti – microbials

  • Allium Sativum (Garlic)
  • Thymus vulgaris (Thyme)
  • Asclepias tuberosa (Pleurisy root)
  • Baptisia tinctoria (Wild Indigo)
  • Pimpinella anisum (Anise)
  • Hydrastis canadensis (Goldeseal)
  • Echinacea spp.
  • Ligusticum porteri (Osha)
  • Lomatium dissectum (Lomatium)

Respiratory tonics

  • Equisetum arvense (Horsetail)
  • Glechoma hederacea (Ground Ivy)
  • Hydrastis canadensis (Golden Seal)
  • Plantago lanceolata/major (Plantain)
  • Pulmonaria off. (Lungwort)
  • Hyssopus off. (Hyssop)
  • Pilosella off. (Mouse-ear Hawkweed)

Anti-spasmodics and broncho – relaxants

  • Lobelia inflata (Lobelia)
  • Grindelia camporum (Gumweed/Tarweed)
  • Angelica archangelica (Angelica root)
  • Ephedra sinica (Ma Huang)
  • Prunus serotina (Wild Cherry)
  • Datura stramonium (Thorn Apple)
  • Viburnum opulis (Cramp Bark)
  • Marrubium vulgare (White Horehound)
  • Asclepias tuberosa (Pleurisy root)
  • Drosera rotundifolia (Sundew)
  • Euphorbia hirta (Pill-bearing Spurge)
  • Symplocarpus foetidum (Skunk Cabbage)

Materia Medica for the Musculo-Skeletal System

Alteratives:

  • Rumex crispus (Yellow dock)
  • Berberis vulgaris (Barberry)
  • Phytolacca spp. (Pokeroot)
  • Arctium lappa (Burdock)
  • Urtica dioica (Nettle)
  • Fucus vesiculosis (Kelp)

Diuretics:

  • Apium graveolens (Celery)
  • etroselinum crispum (Parsley)
  • Betula alba (Birch)

Anti-inflammatories:

  • Salix spp. (Willow)
  • Harpagophytum procumbens (Devil’s Claw)
  • Menyanthes trifoliata (Bogbean)
  • Guaiacum off. (Guaiacum)
  • Filipendula ulmaris (Meadowsweet)
  • Populus balsamifera (Poplar Balsam/Balm of Gilead) [topical]
  • Bupleurum falcatum (Chinese Thoroughwax)
  • Curcuma longa (Turmeric)
  • Scutalleria baicalensis (Chinese skullcap)
  • Glycyrrhiza glabra (Licorice)
  • Dioscorea villosa (Wild yam)

Circulatory stimulants:

  • Capsicum minimum (Cayenne)
  • Zanthoxylum americanum (Prickly ash)
  • Zingiber off. (Ginger)
  • Myrica cerifera (Bayberry)

Rubefacients:

  • Capsicum minimum (Cayenne)
  • Zingiber off. (Ginger)
  • Brassica alba/niger (Mustard)
  • Gaultheria procumbens (Wintergreen)
  • Juniperus communis (Juniper)

Analgesics:

  • Piscidia erythrina (Jamaica dogwood)
  • Valeriana off. (Valerian)
  • Arnica montana (Arnica)
  • Aconitum napellus (Aconite)
  • Gelsemium sempivirens (Yellow jasmine)

Immuno-regulators:

  • Echinacea spp.
  • Galium aparine (Cleavers)
  • Phytolacca decandra (Pokeroot)
  • Usnea spp.

Collagen tonics/regulators:

  • Crataegus oxy. (berries)
  • Vaccinium myrtillus (blueberries)
  • Yucca leaves
  • Bryonia dioica is specifically a tonic and strengthener of the joint capsule.

Materia Medica for the Nervous System

Tonics:

  • Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s Wort)
  • Avena sativa (Oats)
  • Turnera diffusa (Damiana)
  • Equisetum arvense (Horsetail)
  • Borago off. (Borage)

Stimulants:

  • Turnera diffusa (Damiana)
  • Cola vera (Kola)
  • Zingiber off. (Ginger)
  • Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo)
  • Rosmarinus off. (Rosemary)
  • Avena sativa (Oats)
  • Cimicifuga racemosa (Black Cohosh)
  • Viscum album (Mistletoe)
  • Centella/Hydrocotyl asiatica (Gotu kola)

Relaxants:

  • Verbena off. (Vervain)
  • Avena sativa (Oats)
  • Lavandula off. (Lavender)
  • Humulus lupulus (Hops)
  • Melissa off. (Lemon Balm)
  • Chamomilla recutita (Chamomile)
  • Stachys betonica (Wood Betony)
  • Scutalleria lateriflora (Skullcap)
  • Valeriana off. (Valerian)
  • Passiflora incarnata (Passion Flower)
  • Viburnum opulus (Cramp Bark)
  • Viscum album (Mistletoe)
  • Tilia europea (Linden)
  • Lactuca virosa (Wild Lettuce)
  • Borago off. (Borage)

Analgesics:

  • Piscidia erythrina (Jamaican Dogwood) Gelsemium sempivirens (Yellow Jasmine)
  • Aconitum napellus (Aconite)
  • Arnica montana (Arnica)
  • Anemone pulsatilla (Pasque flower)
  • Lactuca virosa (Wild lettuce)
  • Eschscholzia california (Californian Poppy)

Materia Medica for the Female Reproductive System

Uterine Tonics:

  • Cimicifuga racemosa (Black cohosh)
  • Caulophyllum thalictroides (Blue cohosh)
  • Leonurus cardiaca (Motherwort)
  • Rubus idaeus (Red raspberry)
  • Mitchella repens (Squaw vine or Partridge Berry)
  • Verbena officinalis (Vervain)
  • Lamium album (White dead nettle)
  • Hydrastis canadensis (Golden seal)

Hormonal balancers:

  • Vitex agnus-castus (Chaste berry)
  • Chamaelirium luteum (False unicorn root)
  • Glycyrrhiza glabra (Licorice)
  • Angelica sinensis (Dong Quai)
  • Verbena off. (Vervain)

Anti-spasmodics:

  • Viburnum prunifolium (Black haw)
  • Chamomilla recutita (German chamomile)
  • Dioscorea villosa (Wild yam)
  • Lamium album (White dead nettle)
  • Lobelia inflata (Lobelia)

Progestogenics:

  • Dioscorea villosa

Oestrogenics:

  • Trifolium pratense (Red clover)
  • Salvia officinalis (Sage)
  • Humulus lupulus (Hops)
  • Cimicifuga racemosa (Black cohosh)
  • Aletris farinosa (Unicorn root)
  • Glycyrrhiza glabra (Licorice)
  • Caulophyllum thalictroides (Blue cohosh)

Circulatory stimulants:

  • Zanthoxylum americanum (Prickly ash)
  • Zingiber officinalis (Ginger)
  • Achillea millefolium (Yarrow)

Ovarian tonics:

  • Anemone pulsatilla (Pasque flower)
  • Chamaelirium luteum (False unicorn)

Antiseptics:

  • Baptisia tinctoria (Wild indigo)
  • Thymus vulgaris (Thyme)
  • Origanum marjorana (Marjoram)
  • Allium sativum (Garlic)
  • Hydrastis canadensis (Goldenseal)

Decongestants:

  • Collinsonia canadensis (Stone root)
  • Lamium album (White dead nettle)
  • Achillea millefolium (Yarrow)

Anodynes:

  • Anemone pulsatilla (Pasque flower)
  • Chamomilla recutita (German chamomile)
  • Viburnum prunifolium (Black Haw)

Galactogogues:

  • Galega officinalis (Goat’s rue)
  • Foeniculum officinalis (Fennel)
  • Verbena officinalis (Blue vervain)
  • Carduus benedictus (Blessed thistle)

Anti-galactogogues:

  • Salvia officinalis (Sage)
  • Oplopanax horridum (Devils Club)

Emmenagogues:

  • Artemisia absinthium (Wormwood)
  • Ruta graveolens (Rue)
  • Mentha pulegium (Pennyroyal)
  • Tanacetum vulgare (Tansy)
  • Caulophyllum thalictroides (Blue cohosh)
  • Hydrastis canadensis (Goldenseal)

Anti-virals/anti-fungals:

  • Calendula officinalis (Marigold)
  • Thuja occidentalis (Arbor vitae)
  • Commiphora molmol (Myrrh)
  • Tea tree oil

Astringents:

  • Alchemilla vulgaris (Ladies mantle)
  • Capsella bursa pastoris (Shepherd’s purse)
  • Geranium robertianum (Herb Robert)

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